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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 81-85

The association between smartphone addiction and dry eye disease: A cross-sectional study


1 Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Ophthalmology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Ayman Mohammed Baabdullah
7464 Abdullah Bin Omair, Almohamadeyya, Jeddah
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JNSM.JNSM_51_18

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Background: The use of smartphones has increased exponentially. Excessive usage of smartphones has been shown to have a negative impact on ocular health. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between smartphone addiction and dry eye disease (DED) and determine the risk factors of DED in participants associated with smartphone addiction. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2017. Participants were selected from the Faculty of Medicine at King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Stratified random sampling technique was used to recruit participants according to their academic year with an equal allocation of males and females. Only participants owning smartphones were included in the study. DED was assessed using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire and a short-version of the smartphone addiction scale (SAS-SV) was used to assess smartphone addiction among the participants. Data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression. Results: A total of 443 completed questionnaires were received, providing a response rate of 94%. Almost half of the participants were found to have DED (49.4%). There was no significant association between smartphone addiction and DED (P = 0.102). However, significant associations were observed between DED and contact lens use, eye drops, eye disease, and Vitamin A therapy (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Contrary to what was locally reported, DED had a lower prevalence. Despite no significant correlation with smartphone addiction, DED was found to be associated with the use of contact lenses, Vitamin A therapy, and eye drops. Several risk factors and clinical predictors of DED might exist, which highlight the importance of performing a complete clinical ophthalmological assessment.


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